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Call for Abstracts

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Deadline: March 30, 2018

Anyone who wants to present a paper at the GRC Annual Meeting must submit an abstract!

The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) invites you to present your latest technical work in geothermal research, exploration, development and utilization at GRC’s 42nd Annual Meeting & Expo from October 14-17, 2018 at the Peppermill Resort Spa Casino, Reno, Nevada.

Successful selection to present at the Geothermal Resources Council 2018 Annual Meeting & Expo is prestigious and recognizes the presenter as a top industry expert. International participation is the key to the success of the GRC Annual Meeting technical programs and we encourage geothermal researchers and experts from around the world to submit their work for consideration to be presented at the GRC 2018 Annual Meeting & Expo.

Authors may submit a poster and/or oral technical presentation at the GRC’s 2018 Annual Meeting & Expo. 

The Abstract submission deadline is Friday, March 30th, 2018. 


2018 General Paper Topics

(Please select "Open" in the Subject Area of the CMT website)

  • Business Development
  • Country Updates
  • Direct Use/Heat Pumps
  • Drilling
  • Exploration and Resource Assessment
  • Field Operations
  • Geochemistry
  • Geology
  • Geophysics
  • Mineral Extraction
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Operations and Maintenance
  • Regional Updates
  • Regulatory and Policy
  • Reservoir Engineering and Management
  • Sedimentary Basins
  • Utility and Transmission
  • Other

Themed Session Topics

For a description of each themed session and contact information click here:

  • Design and Implementation of New Technology (Session Chair: Will Osborn)
  • Distributed Geothermal and Where Can It Be Implemented (Session Chair: Hezy Ram)
  • Earth Modeling of Geothermal Systems (Session Chair: Robert Podgorney & Jeremy O'Brien)
  • EGS COLLAB - A Path to FORGE (Session Chair: Tim Kneafsey & Doug Blankenship & Lauren Boyd)
  • Environmental and Social Review for International Funding (Session Chair: Laurie Hietter)
  • FORGE Research - enabling EGS (Session Chair: Lauren Boyd)
  • Geothermal Energy in Canada: Existing Projects and Examining the Potential to Use Existing Oil and Gas Wells (Session Chair: Zach Harmer & Alison Thompson)
  • Geothermal Production from Oil and Gas Fields (Session Chair: Kai Wang)
  • Grid Effects from adding 4,000 GWh/yr of Wind, Solar, or Geothermal Generation (Session Chair: Kevin Kitz)
  • How the Best Practice Management of Geothermal Resources (Session Chair: Paul Siratovich)
  • Iceland Geothermal (Session Chair: Juliet Newson)
  • Industrial Direct Use (Session Chair: Andy Blair)
  • Innovations and Applications in Data Management Practices for Geothermal Development (Session Chair: Ashley Ndir)
  • International Research on Engineered and Superhot Geothermal Systems (Session Chair: Egbert Jolie)
  • Risk Mitigation Schemes in the World (Session Chair: Jean Jacques Graff & Christian Boissavy & Virginie Schmidle-Bloch)
  • Sustainability and Community Engagement for Geothermal Development (Session Chair: Caity Smith & Aroha Campbell)
  • Deep Direct-Use Feasibility Studies (Session Chair: Arlene Anderson)

Instructions to submit your abstract (only online submissions will be accepted):

CMT Website: https://cmt3.research.microsoft.com/GRC2018

  1. Create a login and profile on the CMT website (if you submitted a paper last year, please use the same login or click on "Reset Password" Tab ).
  2. Type the Title and Abstract on the CMT website along with other required information. The abstract is limited to 2000 characters. Please do NOT upload your abstract in the file section of the CMT - this section is for your draft paper after your abstract has been accepted.  
    • Please see below for paper topics.
  3. Abstracts will be reviewed during March 30 – April 6th and Authors will be notified of their status (accepted/rejected).

Authors for all accepted abstracts will be given further instructions upon notification.

Please direct all content related questions to:

Please direct all format and general submission questions to:


GRC 2018 Annual Meeting Deadlines

March 30th                   
Deadline for Abstract Submissions.                   

March 30th – April 6th  
Abstracts will be reviewed by 2018 Technical and Session Chairs. Authors will be notified of their Abstract status (accepted or rejected). All accepted authors will receive further instructions on how to submit and format their Draft Paper.

June 8th                       
Formatted Draft Papers and License to Use & Reproduce form due.         

June 9th – 22nd            
Draft Papers will be reviewed by 2018 Annual Meeting Technical Committee and Authors will be notified of their Draft Paper status (accepted or rejected). All accepted authors will receive further instructions on how to submit their Final Formatted Paper.

July 1st                        
Deadline for confirming your attendance to the Annual Meeting and submission of your Final Formatted Paper. By submitting your Final Formatted Paper, you are confirming you or a speaker will be attending and presenting your paper at the 2018 Annual Meeting. Authors must submit a final corrected and formatted copy of their paper using the GRC Paper Template. Adherence to this deadline is a necessary condition of final paper acceptance.

July 31st                      
Deadline for authors to withdraw their paper without penalty. If you do not withdraw your paper and no one shows up to present your paper during the Annual Meeting, all authors involved with that paper will not be allowed to publish or present at the GRC Annual Meeting for 2 years. Papers are expected to be presented in person at the 2018 GRC Annual Meeting. Failure to do so will also result in the paper being removed from the Transactions (if possible) and/or not be included in the GRC online library.

We require a completed technical paper for both poster and oral presentations because all papers are published in the GRC’s Transactions Volume Flash Drive unless otherwise specified. Papers are expected to be presented in person at the 2018 GRC Annual Meeting. Failure to do so may result in the paper being removed from the Transactions and/or not included in the GRC online library.


Paper Submission Acceptance Standards & Requirements

Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) Annual Meetings provide an international forum for the exchange of new and significant research information on all aspects of geothermal resource characterization, exploration, development and utilization. The official language of the GRC Annual Meetings is English.

All papers submitted for presentation at GRC Annual Meetings are reviewed by our Technical Program Committee with respect to topic, content, originality and overall quality. Annual Meeting presentations may be oral (usually limited to 15 - 20 minutes, including discussion), and/or in Poster Session format. Final assignment of papers to oral and/or poster presentation format (or publication only) will be made by the Technical Program Committee.

Acceptance Standards

Technical papers can be submitted to the GRC for oral or poster presentation, or a combination of both or for publication only. Unless specified otherwise by the author(s), all accepted papers will be published in the GRC Transactions. Each paper offered for initial and final consideration by the Technical Program Committee must be accompanied by the License to Use & Reproduce Form. The GRC reserves the right to reject any submissions that do not meet minimum acceptance requirements. Papers submitted for oral and/or poster presentations will undergo peer review by the Technical Program Committee, which will examine all submissions for technical accuracy and adherence to the following standards:

  • All papers for submission to the GRC must be written in English, with text that is grammatically correct and free of typographical errors. The Technical Program Committee will provide limited assistance to authors whose second language is English to bring their papers up to basic grammatical standards.
  • All papers must be formatted using the GRC Paper Template. Failure to do so can result in the rejection or removal of your paper.
  • Illustrations and other graphics must be concise, well organized and clearly readable. Tables and figures must be sequentially numbered and referenced in the text. Captions should provide adequate descriptive information. Do not group several independent figures together under one caption. References to published literature must be fully cited at the end of the paper.
  • All papers should provide appropriate credit for any technical or editorial contribution and when appropriate should credit funding sources.

Acceptance Requirements

The GRC Annual Meeting technical committee is made up of geothermal industry experts. This committee is charged with creating a highly educational and informative Annual Meeting program consisting of technical and poster presentations and panels that address topical and timely geothermal industry issues.

The primary criteria to be used in the selection process are:

  • Papers are relevant to the Annual Meeting theme.
  • Papers demonstrate one or more actions needed to secure a sustainable energy future through geothermal projects
  • Papers identify major issues and challenges and discuss solutions for advancing the geothermal industry.
  • Papers avoid sales pitches or commercials.
  • Work is relevant and of interest to annual meeting attendees.
  • Work is new or presents a new perspective on previously published or presented material.
    • It is essential that reviewers be told by the authors when any portion of a paper is based heavily on previous work, even if this work has been written by one or more of the authors of the paper. It is the responsibility of the author not only to cite the previous work, including their own, but to provide an indication of the extent to which a paper depends on this work. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
    • In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper (peer reviewed or not). Exceptions may be made, at the publisher’s discretion, in certain conditions. Examples of such conditions include:
      • The audiences targeted by the publications are different.
      • The paper presents a new perspective on previously published material.
      • The paper is an update of the previously published material, focusing mainly on the new research and data found since the published material.
  • Papers are well-organized and clearly describe their relevance to the industry, i.e., offer practical applications and uses for the information presented. Applicants are encouraged to use case studies, offer solutions and include specifics.
  • Papers offer a degree of in-depth content, even though the audience ranges from beginners to experts.

Consultants and manufacturers may submit papers of a non-commercial nature, but obvious commercial sales pitches will not be accepted for a presentation. Being selected to present at the Geothermal Resources Council 2018 Annual Meeting is a privilege and recognizes the presenter as a top industry expert.


Description of Themed Topics

Design and Implementation of New Technology
Session Chair: Will Osborn, Geothermal Solutions Inc, will.osborn09@gmail.com
Description: This session focuses on the design and implementation of new technology to increase or augment the generation potential of a geothermal resource or facility. This might include improvements to increase production and generation efficiency (e.g., downhole heat exchangers, improved cooling systems, etc.), or co-production at the site (e.g., combining solar or wind, mineral extraction, hydrogen gas production, etc.).

Distributed Geothermal and Where Can It Be Implemented
Session Chair: Hezy Ram, hezyram@gmail.com
Description: The concept of Distributed Geothermal (D. Geo) had been touted for many years, but never got hold. It is an attractive concept: using small geothermal plants (hundreds of kW up to several MW) which usually need one production well (and some means of reinjection of other means to dispose of the cooled brine) and can provide based load power to say a small village or a remote industry. There are a few aspects to discuss in this proposed session: 1.) Markets- which are the markets which can use such technologies. 2.) Technologies – traditionally, the ORC technology was considered. Some recent development in the Condensing Steam Turbines space, brings more options to the developers. 3.) Economics – while the economics of the competing technologies like solar and wind are quite compelling, d. Geo is unique in being the only based load RE type. 4.) Examples – actual examples can be found in Alaska and Kenya. We can analyze the history herewith. 5.) Challenges and opportunities

Earth Modeling of Geothermal Systems
Session Chair: Robert Podgorney, Idaho National Lab, robert.podgorney@inl.gov & Jeremy O'Brien, Seequent, jeremy.obrien@seequent.com
Description: Earth modeling is the art and science of creating computerized representations of the earth's subsurface based on geological and geophysical observations made on and below the ground surface and is commonly used for managing natural resources and quantifying geological processes.  It is a key step between geological understanding and numerical modeling of subsurface processes.  This session seeks submissions on the  topics of 1) Examples of earth models for geothermal resources around the world, 2) Discussions of innovative earth modeling workflows to enable use of unique data or observations, 3) Methods to interface data between field observations, earth models, and numerical models, and 4) Additional tools or methods that could be added to the next generation of earth modeling tools.  Additional submissions for topics not mentioned are also welcome.

EGS COLLAB - A Path to FORGE
Session Chair: Tim Kneafsey, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, tjkneafsey@lbl.gov & Doug Blankenship, Sandia National Lab, dablank@sandia.gov & Lauren Boyd, U.S. Dept. of Energy, lauren.boyd@ee.gov
Description: The EGS Collab is a small-scale field site where the subsurface modeling and research community is establishing validations against controlled, small-scale, in-situ experiments focused on rock fracture behavior and permeability enhancement. The EGS Collab provides the opportunity for reservoir model prediction and validation, in coordination with in-depth analysis of geophysical and other fracture characterization data with an ultimate goal of understanding the basic relationship between stress, seismicity and permeability enhancement. Identification and quantification of other parameters impacting permeability, as well as understanding how these parameters change throughout the three EGS development phases, is expected and critical to achieving commercial viability of EGS.  This session will share progress to date on this research.

Environmental and Social Review for International Funding
Session Chair: Laurie Hietter, Panorama Environmental, Inc., laurie.hietter@panoramaenv.com
Description: This session will focus on case studies in preparing Environmental and Social Impact Assessments and Environmental and Social Management Plans for exploration and development in geothermal fields around the world. Case studies from environmental reviews of geothermal development, in countries such as Saint Lucia, Djibouti, Kenya, New Zealand, Colombia, and Iceland, will be presented to describe environmental and social issues and identify best practices in evaluation, stakeholder engagement, and mitigation measures.

FORGE Research - enabling EGS
Session Chair: Lauren Boyd, U.S. Dept. of Energy, lauren.boyd@ee.gov
Description: The Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) is the core of the DOE’s efforts to accelerate enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) research.  The overarching objective for FORGE is to design and test a rigorous and reproducible approach for developing large-scale, economically sustainable heat exchange systems & enable widespread deployment of EGS. The final FORGE team, in partnership with the community, will perform at-scale testing of fracture initiation and sustainability and develop, test, improve and compare EGS technologies and techniques in a controlled, well-characterized, hard-rock, environment. This session will provide an overview of research performed to date at both Phase 2 FORGE team sites as well as next steps for this exciting research facility.

Geothermal Energy in Canada: Existing Projects and Examining the Potential to Use Existing Oil and Gas Wells
Session Chair: Zach Harmer, CanGEA & Alison Thompson, CanGEA, info@cangea.ca
Description: Building upon a 2016 study conducted by CanGEA in cooperation with the Government of Alberta and member companies, this session will examine existing geothermal projects in Canada as well as an analysis of the potential to repurpose inactive or abandoned wells for geothermal heat and energy. The session will utilize the data obtained from the 2016 study to explore how Alberta can best make use of the existing infrastructure for micro-power generation and heating. The session will include various case studies in Canada and around the world and in turn provide suggestions and advice that can be applied universally to other jurisdictions with a similar concentration of oil and gas wells. Preliminarily, the session will be broken down into four parts: (1) Review all ongoing geothermal project developments in Canada as well as a brief overview of Canadian policies directed at geothermal. (2) review of the Alberta case study using existing data obtained from the 2016 study. This will include an analysis of the necessary features to make a given oil and gas well a viable candidate for geothermal energy and heat generation. (3) An overview of existing technology, power generation systems, and companies interested in (re)developing oil and gas wells for geothermal heat and energy. (4) A look at current case studies in Alberta and abroad to demonstrate its possibility as well as to spur interest and development in other parts of the world.

Geothermal Production from Oil and Gas Fields
Session Chair: Kai Wang, University of Oklahoma, Xingru Wu, University of Oklahoma,  kai.wang@ou.edu
Description: The goal of this session is to present the latest advances in geothermal production from oil and gas fields. Massive geothermal resources are stored in the hydrocarbon reservoirs indicated by sufficient data of bottomehole temperature at 248°F (120°C) or higher, and they could be easily accessed by existing wellbores. Utilizing oil and gas wells through the present infrastructures is an economically efficient way to produce geothermal energy. Operating within fully depleted or currently producing wells could eliminate the high cost and risk of drilling and completion, awake the sunken assets, produce clean energy, create cash flow from geothermal utilizations, and extend the economic life of mature oilfields. In this session, we will focus on recent efforts done by oil/gas producers and researchers to discover, predict, evaluate, test and enhance the oilfield geothermal production. This session also aims to identify the challenges in current oilfield geothermal productions and point out the possible solutions to unlock the potential and accelerate the geothermal production. The topics include but are not limited to: 1) geothermal extraction methods from oil and gas wells; 2) geothermal power generation; 3) coproduction of hydrocarbon and electricity; 4) geothermal waterflooding; 5) geothermal assisted crude oil transportation, 6) well selections for geothermal production, 7) enhanced geothermal production methods, 8) novel materials and technologies and 9) risks and opportunities in oilfield geothermal production.

Grid Effects from adding 4,000 GWh/yr of Wind, Solar, or Geothermal Generation
Session Chair: Kevin Kitz, kevin@kitzworks.com
Description: As major efforts are undertaken to reduce CO2 emissions from the generation of electricity, there is a tendency to consider that any MWh of renewable energy reduces the carbon emissions of the grid by the same amount, and also that the cost of a renewable contract is representative of the full cost to the grid.  This provides an enormous advantage to solar and wind worldwide over geothermal, and hence geothermal loses market and growth opportunity.  However, studies published over the last several years indicate that neither lower cost, nor lower CO2 is true.  In short counting “RECs” is not an accurate way to achieve either low cost or low CO2 emissions.  The goal of this session is to have papers that investigate the effect of taking a current system, and adding 4,000 GWh/yr  (Roughly equivalent to = ~450 MW/yr of geothermal, or 1,500 to 1,800 MW of solar, or 1,200 to 1,600 MW of wind.)  The objectives sought in the papers will be to address in a single paper as many effects as possible of the annual grid effects such as cost of integration, transmission capacity requirements, carbon emissions, backup generation, short term and long term jobs, taxes, etc.

How the Best Practice Management of Geothermal Resources
Session Chair: Paul Siratovich, Upflow NZ, paul.siratovich@upflow.nz
Description: Detailed scrutiny of the processes going on in geothermal systems during the operational phase dictates the long term running costs (and ultimately profitability) of a geothermal development. Unforeseen problems with surface equipment, well bore assets and reservoir issues can quickly incur incredibly large capital expenditures that may push a geothermal project from a net positive endeavor to a rapidly cash hemorrhaging project. System forecasting, reservoir management, reservoir monitoring, maintenance scheduling as well as continuous scrutiny of reservoir and surface processes all provide early warning signs so that operators can react to minor issues before they become irreversibly damaging to the geothermal project. This session explore what the best practices in resource management are and will allow an open forum for operators, regulators and developers to share ideas and experiences to come up with an answer to the question: “How do the best in the world manage their geothermal resources?

Iceland Geothermal
Session Chair: Juliet Newson, Reykjavik University, julietn@ru.is
Description: The Icelandic landscape is dominated by volcanism and associated geothermal activity. This abundant geothermal energy resource is used for both direct use (90% of all space heating, drying, agriculture, aquaculture, snow melting, tourism, and balneology) and electricity generation that produces 25% of the total national electricity supply. There is a significant geothermal research, consulting, and training industry to support geothermal resource use in Iceland, and a considerable amount of work internationally in Africa, Latin America and the South-West Pacific. This session will bring together updates from the Icelandic geothermal industry for an overview on recent innovations and knowledge development from one of the world's leading geothermal nations. 

Industrial Direct Use
Session Chair: Andy Blair, Upflow NZ, andy.blair@upflow.nz
Description: Industrial direct use projects provide significant economic and social benefits to the regions and communities within which they operate. Interest in geothermal industrial direct use is increasing around the world as electricity generators look to grow revenue streams and provide greater support to their local communities. Iceland and New Zealand do this well; what are the philosophies, tools and activities that these nations are using to grow this space? What other successful industrial direct use projects exist in other parts of the ‘geothermal world’? What makes this energy source attractive to markets and what are the opportunities? This session will have international presenters talking specifics about their industrial direct use operations, providing insight and inspiration to those interested in supporting and/or developing projects.

Innovations and Applications in Data Management Practices for Geothermal Development
Session Chair: Ashley Ndir, U.S. Energy Association, andir@usea.org
Description: Access to reliable geothermal data is critical to the development of the geothermal projects. Permitting open access to high quality data is essential to lowering costs for geothermal development and therefore critical in drawing investment and reducing the high upfront risk inherent in early stage geothermal projects. The risk currently involved in early stages of geothermal project development is higher than other renewables, yet a wealth of accessible geologic data on quantity and distribution of geothermal resources could significantly drive down the costs of exploration and development. This session will explore innovations in geothermal data management from data development, collection, digitization, data accessibility and applications in data usage.

International Research on Engineered and Superhot Geothermal Systems
Session Chair: Egbert Jolie, GFZ German Research Centre For Geosciences, jolie@gfz-potsdam.de
Description: Unconventional geothermal systems such as Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) have been in the focus of interest for geothermal exploitation for several decades. In addition, the development of high-temperature geothermal fields with supercritical conditions are emerging as a new hot topic in various parts of the world, since a significantly higher energy output is feasible with less drilling demand. Superhot/supercritical geothermal systems (SHGS) with temperatures >350°C require new and innovative exploration and exploitation concepts. Therefore, considerable research efforts are currently ongoing on the development of novel concepts for a successful development of such resources. This includes advancements in drilling technologies, well integrity and installation materials, as well as development of adapted risk mitigation and management concepts. The sessions aims to bring together international key player with experiences in high-temperature geothermal fields.

Risk Mitigation Schemes in the World
Session Chair: Jean Jacques Graff, AFPG President & Christian Boissavy, GEODEEP & Virginie Schmidle-Bloch, GEODEEP, virginie.schmidle@geodeep.fr
Description: Geothermal energy faces a range of technical, economical, commercial, organizational and political risks. Some of the risks can and should be borne by the project owner, some are routinely transferred to bodies that are better suited to carry specific risks, yet other risks can be high enough to be – in the absence of a risk transfer mechanism – a showstopper. Unless the subsurface is particularly well explored and characterized for geothermal energy utilization (e.g. the Larderello region, the Paris Basin, the major grabens along the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone of Turkey), the resource risk during the early stages of geothermal field development makes it very difficult to mobilize the required risk capital, especially through the private sector. This poses a formidable challenge and is the major barrier to entry for geothermal project developers in Europe but also worldwide. A common theme that is apparent when reviewing global experience is that successful scale-up of geothermal development has benefited from some form of government facilitated support.

In this session, we aim at focusing not only on power production, as it is commonly done, but also at analyzing the geothermal heat market which is highly important in many parts of the word too, such as in Asia, Europe at large and north America.
The objective of our session is to compare the impact of different risk mitigation strategies on geothermal expansion through a panorama of the most relevant schemes considering also the specific circumstances of each country and its national geothermal development goals.

Sustainability and Community Engagement for Geothermal Development
Session Chair: Caity Smith, U.S. Energy Association, csmith@usea.org & Aroha Campbell, Upflow NZ, aroha.campbell@upflow.nz
Description: Throughout the world, geothermal power projects have often experienced challenges, delays and termination due to insufficient engagement with communities and their stakeholders.  Often, the developer does not prioritize community engagement early in the project timeline, which can often lead to conflict between groups and delays or higher costs to projects.  By having a strong community engagement strategy prior to starting work on a geothermal project, a developer will have the tools in place to engage with local communities and stakeholders at appropriate times  in the development timeline as a tool to help de-risk projects, keep their development on-track and create a shared value for all parties involved.  Successful community engagement will also help to improve and enrich the lives of those communities existing above geothermal reservoirs.
Project developers around the world have encountered significant project delays due to opposition from affected communities, environmental advocates, or indigenous groups near proposed development sites.  Developers in these countries have recognized the need to transparently engage stakeholders and potential affected communities and integrating community engagement strategies into their operations.

By sharing these experiences and practices, developers around the world can implement best practices in sustainability and community engagement and reduce costly project delays.  This session will examine what successful engagement looks like and how it benefits those that do it well. Examples from New Zealand, Kenya and other countries will talk to the key elements, philosophies and activities, that need to come together for positive and sustainable engagement. Case studies and methodologies will be presented, including mistakes and lessons learnt along the way.

U.S. DOE Deep Direct-Use Feasibility Studies
Session Chair: Arlene Anderson, U.S. Department of Energy, arlene.anderson@ee.doe.gov
Description: Typical geothermal direct use operations utilize a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and cooling (via absorption chillers) to buildings, commercial and residential applications, industrial processes, greenhouses, and aquaculture ponds. Deep Direct-Use (DDU) systems would utilize a similar temperature range of fluids, but on a much larger scale. Large-scale is defined as a space conditioning area greater than 10,000 square feet or having an annual thermal energy demand equal to or greater than 125 MMBTU. Any temperature fluid that can provide thermal energy to meet the intended purpose is considered applicable for direct-use.

DDU applications can be systemically engineered in more densely populated areas which have not been able to utilize geothermal resources to date. A large-scale, fully integrated DDU geothermal system has never been realized in the U.S., although efforts of this type are increasingly popular in Europe. For example, the Rittershoffen Deep Geothermal Power Plant in France uses steam from a geothermal reservoir to provide energy to an industrial site. Water is brought up from a depth of about 8,200 feet for the project, which will have an annual output of 190,000 MWh of thermal energy.The U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) is working with six research teams to assess the feasibility of DDU in the United States.  
This session seeks case studies of DDU projects worldwide, and also GTO project award recipients.